Best Practices and Guide of Web Application Architecture

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Web Application Architecture

While beginning another web application development project, you might get confused about picking the right web application architecture. The picked design decides all particulars of making an application, its features, and the collaboration of its components. For a task’s technical success, you need to pick the right components.

This guide briefly portrays the basics of web application design. We will talk about what web application architecture is, the types of web application design, its significant segments, models, and layers, as well as the types of web server architecture. Let’s continue reading.

What are Web Applications?

They are programming applications that operate on a web server and are accessed to by the clients through an internet browser (like Google or Bing) by means of an active web connection. Popular examples of web applications incorporate Google Apps, Microsoft 365, and AOL Mail. A web application’s frontend is created with programming languages like Javascript, CSS, HTML, and backend with any programming stack like MEAN and LAMP. Since you know what a web application is, it’ll be more obvious what web application architecture implies.

What is Web Application Architecture?

Web application architecture is a software architecture that describes the processes of the applications that are operating in the web browser. Web app architecture has all the logic and set of components that display all the simultaneous interactions between the databases, middleware systems, user interfaces, and servers in the application.

Through the web development process in general, you can determine the final design of the product, IT infrastructure, software modules as well as monetization of your web application. Working on web app architecture is the very first step for creating a product.

How Web Application Architecture Works?

In every web application, there are two different sides – server (back-end) and client (front-end). The visual side that is visible to users is defined under the front-end and the client-side responds to the user commands. The users cannot see the back-end but it works as per the commands of the user. It also responds to HTTP requests and business logic.

When you fill your credentials in a registration form online, you do it on the front-end and when you click “enter”, the back-end works the further process. If designed well, they can create a web application architecture. Basically, there are two types of web application architecture components:

  1. User Interface App Components

The user interface app components is associated with the display, configurations, and settings of the application. UX and UI of the product are considered as the major parts of the user interface app components.

  1. Structural Components

These components incorporate the functions that decide user interactions. These also include database storage and control. The architecture in these components is primarily for 3 parts: the database server, the web browser or client, and the web application server.

Layers of Web Application Architecture

There are four common layers of web apps:

  1. Data Access Layer

It gives simple admittance to the information stored in enquired storage like XML and binary records. This layer also manages CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) tasks.

  1. Data Service Layer

This layer sends information prepared by the Business Logic Layer to the Presentation Layer. It isolates the business logic from the customer side, guaranteeing information security.

  1. Business Logic Layer

This layer empowers suitable information trade. It chooses the logic for business principles and tasks. An illustration of a business logic layer is signing in the site.

  1. Presentation Layer

This layer features the UI and makes client connections simpler. It has UI components that convey and show information to clients. In addition, it gives all necessitous information to the customer side. Its fundamental target is to handle clients’ requests, get input information, pass on them to information administration, and show the outcomes.

Models of Web Application Architecture

There are various models available from which you can choose when t is about developing components for web application architecture.

  1. One Web Server and One Database

This is the clearest model. With it, an application’s effective activity depends on server security. So, the application will not work in case there is an issue. However, the model is sufficient for private and testing meetings.

  1. One Database and Multiple Web Servers

This is a more reliable model, as it has a reinforcement server. Ensure the information base is consistently running and secure.

  1. Multiple Databases and Web Servers

This is the most solid alternative. Due to its capacity to handle strong measures of information, this model is a tough base for creating enterprise web application architecture with robust features and security.  

Types of Web Application Architecture

Below are some of the most common and major types of web application architecture that are used by the designers and developers:

  1. Single Page Application (SPA)

This web application includes only a single page application design that contains only content components. It gives the best UX dynamic communication. Clients can basically get to a single page in a superior and intuitive way.

Strengths

  • Compared with traditional architecture, the performance is super-fast.
  • Excellent functions on desktop and mobile devices.
  • Because there is no need to reload or re-render web pages, it has higher flexibility and responsiveness.
  • Simplified and optimized development

Weakness

  • Heavy Browser Workload
  • The use of cross-site scripting (XSS), require high data protection, making it easier for hackers to gain access to the client code and possibly adding scripted harmful commands.
  1. Multi-Page Application

Multi-page applications are in more demand on the web. These days business organizations pick them if their destinations are exceptionally enormous. These arrangements reload a site page for loading or sending information to/from a server through the clients’ programs.

Strengths

  • Rich functions, because MPA allows integrating many functions while maintaining an intuitive interface.
  • High SEO optimization can be achieved through multi-page applications, because they allow multiple keywords to be distributed between different pages, unlike SPA, which will eventually put everything on one page
  • Better analytics tools such as Google Analytics to easily track and monitor better analysis of AMP

Weakness

  • Back-end development is very complicated. MPA relies heavily on server-side code, which means developers must spend more time on back-end development.
  • Low performance and speed. MPA is much larger than SPA, resulting in a slower loading speed and lower response speed.
  • Debugging is complicated because developers need to check the relationship between the GUI (graphical user interface) and each page to ensure that there are no interrupting requests.
  1. Microservices Architecture

Microservices architecture focuses on specific capacities and single-page applications for quick rollout and effectiveness. It is easily evolved with codes that give the best quality to the application and can be adaptable. Microservices are the modules or little tasks that are assembled and afterward incorporated for quicker application.

Strengths

  • Clearly dividing the application into modules helps to easily understand how any part of the code works and to add new features in a convenient way.
  • Developers can add new services at any stage of the development process without changing the entire architecture.
  • High Scalability.
  • Even if non-critical services are interrupted, the application will continue to run. Ability to choose various tools and technologies when developing each service.
  • Easy to implement compared to other architectures because these services are independent of each other

Weakness

  • The complexity of development
  • Difficult to support because each Microservices needs to be maintained separately, which requires continuous or automated monitoring.
  1. Serverless Architecture

Serverless architecture has no framework or relationship-related tasks. In this structure, designers can work on the third-party framework instead of backend server dealing with, consequently, simplifying it for engineers to integrate the web application.

Strengths

  • Reduce cloud cost
  • Reduce development cost
  • High scalability
  • Faster release
  • Integrated logging and control mechanism

Weakness

  • Limited resources, such as runtime, memory, performance, and CPU usage.
  • Security issues are caused by many applications running on a common platform.
  • Limited options for monitoring and debugging
  1. Progressive Web Applications (PWA)

These web-based solutions are made for behaving like native applications on mobile devices. They give offline access, pop-up messages, and a possibility for installing an application to your home screen.

Strengths

  • Highly flexible and adaptable to changes
  • Thanks to the code generator and code reuse, reducing the need for manual coding.
  • Using code generators and reusable code means that you don’t need such a large team to complete the work. This also means that you and/or your team can focus on more valuable work.
  • Very useful when seeking to reduce the overall risk of a project.
  • Using advanced scripts, intermediate code, and abstractions can make it easier to communicate deliverables.

Weakness

  • It requires well-trained designers or developers.

Trends in Web Application Architecture

Right now, the below-mentioned trends are most popular in the web application architecture:

  1. Client-Side Rendering

The great difference between customer-side delivering and server-side delivering is that when you visit a site that uses customer-side rendering, only one request will be made to the worker for storing the essential application skeleton. Then, at that point, the content is created powerfully using JavaScript.

  1. Server-Side Rendering

When you visit a site through CSR by clicking a URL, just a single request is made to the server to stack the web application’s fundamental skeleton and create the content through JavaScript progressively. CSR is ideal for rich webpage collaborations and web applications. After the initial, the website turns out to be extremely quick. However, much of the time, CSR requires an outside library, making the initial page load slowly.

Features of Web Application Architecture

Some of the most exclusive features of a web application architecture are:  

  1. Security

We all know about a web application’s weakness, which is the reason security turns out to be more significant. Malicious code control is the primary concern. Consequently, the application should be ensured for keeping the information secure as per Government laws.

  1. Scalability

Web apps’ horizontal scaling is another feature of the architecture. It incorporates many regions and servers to handle the possible traffic or any type of fluctuation.

Web applications’ horizontal scaling is another component of the design. It includes numerous regions and servers to deal with the traffic or different types of fluctuations.

  1. Extensible

Web application architecture life span is significant for mobile application developers. The cutting-edge web application development needs to have a steady and long lifecycle.

  1. Separation of Concerns

An application needs to be measured and independent in nature for segments. This assists engineers with taking care of issues and integrate elements in the web application. Besides, the web application’s simplicity makes it a significant piece of the design that can be responsive, remarkable, quick, and fix issues.

Web Server Architecture and Its Types

Web servers play a pivotal in successful web app operation. Therefore, we must discuss web server architecture when it comes to describing the fundamentals of web application architecture. The servers are selected by performance indicators like app tiers, speed, storage, and processing power. Here are the major types of web server architecture:

  1. Java Web App Architecture

Java is an extraordinary programming language. This system is used for creating enterprise web app architecture as indicated by the product’s complexity. Java delivers the task with development services and the best assumptions. In addition, designers can use Java tools and structures that can easily work on complex applications.

  1. Cloud-Based Web App Architecture

This architecture upgrades the organization boundaries while dealing with server design. In this design, the whole arrangement is based on the cloud that involves information separation for building a corollary. This design helps store the information on nearby workers or the cloud using the cloud-based application capacities.

  1. Node.js Web App Architecture

Node.js is another part of the webserver architecture that deals with the web application’s model view perspective. These assists address with coding segments with design development. It designs the parts in the mobile web application development without routing. In addition, to ensure the application runs smoothly, the element relationship helps measure assets, information systemization, and break modules’ logic.

  1. .NET Web App Architecture

The cross-platform applications can be essentially supported on the .NET platform that makes it wonderful to deal with. This fuses Docker containers, Microservices, and one next to the other forming, making web development architecture. Besides, it helps in storing information with the data set code and understanding this code without any problem.

  1. Laravel Web App Architecture

Laravel is a PHP web app framework that forms the model view controller without any problem. This helps in building the structural example as indicated by the web applications’ requirements to make the syntax that is expressive, inventive, and exquisite. The web development functions in a superior caching, routing, meeting, and authentication strategy.

  1. PHP Web App Architecture

PHP, the least complex and functional programming language, helps web applications work without any problem. Also, the PHP community is exceptionally huge. In this way, if that the web application design is done, you can make the application with a quick, legitimate system, and selective security. Additionally, it keeps up with PWA or web applications effectively with appropriate local area help.

  1. Python Web App Architecture

Python is a clear, viable, and compact programming language that is used for application development. This is the reason engineers like it as the prearranging language for the server-side. This speeds up the whole maintenance trend of web applications.

  1. AngularJS Web App Architecture

HTML and TypeScript are used for making architecture through significant systems. Also, AngularJS web app development can be just done by reducing code size.

  1. Azure Web App Architecture

These tools connect customary devices and the cloud. Thinking about this, made in a proper structure can change to the Azure web application architecture’s prescribed procedures.

How Web Application Architecture is designed?

Below are the main aspects that must be considered while designing web application architecture:

  • Timeframe for development
  • Targeted platforms
  • Web solution scale and features
  • Budget
  • Objective of architecture
  • Target audience

Above mentioned aspects are the most essential parts of the architecture development that describes the understanding of how it should be:

  1. Database

In the architecture’s data set, you should pick the one that gives different features like SQL and NoSQL. NoSQL is in regards to objects, key-value structure, and so on, while SQL is in regards to predefined designs and tables. NoSQL is considered for enormous scope projects as a result of its higher adaptability and mobility factor. You can likewise think about a replicable data set for better load handling. Make sure to have a backup if the information base fails.

  1. Backend

In the case of the backend, you ought to pick a relevant stage that static and dynamic nature for the domain. Pick the server and language that go perfectly with each other. There is a decision of Serverless or Microservices web application architecture that you can accomplish with cloud administrations for CPU and memory needs. Besides, web solutions work over Microservices that make simple correspondence through Queue or HTTP that upholds numerous dialects.

  1. Front-end

Choosing between the model view regulator and the single page application is another factor about the web application architecture. While picking the architecture type, consider the requirements and what will be adept in the two cases. Precise, Vue, React, and so forth can suit the web application’s front-end development.

  1. API

API is another fundamental plan factor that depends on GET, REST, and POST. These APIs can deal with the HTTP demand without any problem. Besides, there is GraphQL that is consolidated by Facebook that empowers us to get objects from the worker and settle on lean decisions. If a mobile application’s web data transfer capacity is confined, this can come available.

Besides, the PC communication protocol is consolidated as a WebSocket that passes messages to the customer from the server. However, it’s an optional part as few out of not every application keeps the customer updated on the latest information.

The Key Takeaway

Web application architecture is essential to each web-based service and solution. So, its achievement exceptionally depends on how appropriately it is studied and planned.

Keep the pieces together according to the tech needs and objectives of your web solution, and your product will work properly, engage in the right audience, and enjoy in the benefits.

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